Words mean things. You may rearrange them and distort their meaning with synonyms but, when you return to the original its clarity is true. The U. S. Constitution is not law but a framework on which to build it. For the federal authority, that framework is contained in Article 1 Section 8. Article 9 describes the limits on those foreign persons that may be admitted to come under the pact the framers created. The intent of that pact, as is clear, was an attempt, not to govern, but how they would join together to protect themselves and establish some uniformity among 13 sovereign entities so they would not go their separate ways. Article 10 comes the closest to law in that it prohibits the States from taxing each other and if they disobey, the punishment is forfeiture of their gains. This was included, because it was a practice of some of the States with seaports to charge duties on articles intended for other states but forced to pass through. Remember, land transport was mostly unavailable because there were no roads and large quantities of goods could only be shipped by sea animist of the developed seaports were in the north. The pact contained a fatal flaw that will eventually lead to its undoing and a clause intended not to eliminate it but, to mitigate its impact. It added a safety valve provision in the event of total failure.
The pact required the States to accept only gold or silver in payment of debts. This essentially killed the barter economy that most of the country used in its commerce, obviating the need for gold or silver of which there was little, save that brought over from England. The federal authority retained to itself the ability to determine the value of gold and silver or any other currency being used for world commerce. The safety valve was the provision that the federal authority was absolutely restricted to taxation as a means to pay for its services. It is why borrowing was included as a separate power and intended, as were the States, to pay for services rendered until tax revenue could be received. It is a facet of a mercantile economy that is not necessary in a barter economy where equal exchange is instantaneous. Needless to say your Congress has completely ignored the requirement to tax to pay for its services and has greatly expanded the services it provides and was limited to those contained in Article 1 Section 8.
It has been my contention that nearly every problem we has as a society has been created then exacerbated by unconstitutional activity of the government in every branch. The proof lies in the manner that the Supreme Court uses to declare certain acts legal, not by referring to the original charter of limitations, but previous actions the court has sanctioned when it was not in their power to do so. If you read the first acts of the Congress you will se where the court took upon itself the power to decide what is law when the Constitution gave it only the power to settle disputes. The authority to decide constitutionality was given the President alone and an override by the Congress negated it.
There are those on this blog who slander, demean and criticize but who have yet to cite and error or rebut my discovery of the truth with a truth of their own.